385 Harina de maní parcialmente deslipidizada: un ingrediente funcional para mejorar el valor nutritivo de productos de panificación iron, followed by zinc and copper. In order to maximize the addition of PF in cookies, and to improve the cookie spread, the level of shortening was increased substantially as compared to the standard ACC (33) formula. Such an effect of shortening on cookies has been demonstrated elsewhere (34, 35). Peanut flour cookies (PFC) weighed about 10 g each and showed a good spread (diameter/thickness) ratio (over 5.5). Their chemical composition is presented in table 3. Peanut flour cookies contained 90 g protein kg-1 and 36 g fiber kg-1, almost thrice and nine times more than the corresponding levels observed in wheat flour-based cookies (WFC). The lipid content of PFC (271 g kg-1) was not significantly higher than that of WFC (216 g kg- 1). With exception of oleic acid content, which was higher in PFC, there were a few minor differences in FA composition. Regarding mineral composition, PFC showed significantly higher amounts of potassium (about nine times) and magnesium (about six times) as compared with WFC. Sensory evaluation of breads and cookies Results from sensory evaluation of the different types of elaborated breads and cookies are shown in table 4. Data from all attributes evaluated did not show statistical significant differences between types of breads, thus also indicating similar overall acceptability values. With exception of texture, which was higher in PFC, no significant differences were observed between types of cookies. Cookies made with 100 % peanut flour had high overall acceptability score (8.5). CONCLUSIONS Partially defatted peanut flour (PF) provides a rich source of gluten-free protein, fiber and essential minerals. It may be used to enhance the nutritional quality of wheat flour-based bakery products. Results obtained from breads prepared using peanut/wheat flour blends showed that they are compatible ingredients in bread formulations. Partially defatted PF may replace up to 20 % wheat flour without adversely affect dough TABLE 3 Chemical composition of peanut flour cookies (PFC) and wheat flour cookies (WFC). Component PFC WFC Moisture 55 ± 5.1a 79 ± 6.3a Proteins 90 ± 3.9b 32 ± 1.8a Lipids 271 ± 10.3a 216 ± 8.4a Ash 17 ± 0.8a 15 ± 0.5a Crude fiber 36 ± 2.3b 4 ± 1.30a Carbohydrate 531 ± 22.4a 654 ± 18.15a Fatty acids Capric acid 4.2 ± 0.2a 4.3 ± 0.3a Lauric acid 4.3 ± 0.2a 4.8 ± 0.4a Myristic acid 1.2 ± 0.07a 1.3 ± 0.08a Palmitic acid 11.7 ± 0.3a 12.2 ± 0.3a Palmitoleic acid tr* tr Stearic acid 3.8 ± 0.2a 4.4 ± 0.4a Oleic acid 35.2 ± 1.0b 25.8 ± 0.7a Linoleic acid 36.1 ± 1.3a 42.8 ± 1.6a Linolenic acid 1.9 ± 0.1a 3.5 ± 0.3b Arachidic acid tr tr Eicosenoic acid tr tr Behenic acid tr 0.7 ± 0.05 % US 73.2 ± 1.2 72.1 ± 1.1 PUFA/SFA 1.4 ± 0.1 1.6 ± 0.2 Minerals Sodium 1.61 ± 0.07a 1.56 ± 0.06a Potassium 2.90 ± 0.08b 0.32 ± 0.03a Magnesium 0.81 ± 0.04b 0.13 ± 0.01a Calcium 0.27 ± 0.03a 0.21 ± 0.02a Iron 0.06 ± 0.01a 0.04 ± 0.01a Copper 0.009 ± 0.001a 0.005 ± 0.001a Zinc 0.01 ± 0.002a 0.006 ± 0.002a *tr, trace<0.5 %. Proximate (g kg-1 dry matter), mineral (mg g-1 dry matter) and fatty acid (% of total fatty acids) compositions, unsaturated fatty acid percentage (% US), and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids ratio (PUFA/SFA) of peanut flour cookies (PFC) and wheat flour cookies (WFC). Mean values ± standard deviations (s(n-1)), n=3. Different superscript letters indicate significant differences (p £ 0.05) among PFC and WFC for each component evaluated.
Rev Nutr 43-4
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