Page 54

Rev Nutr 43-4

383 Harina de maní parcialmente deslipidizada: un ingrediente funcional para mejorar el valor nutritivo de productos de panificación Statistical analysis All data were obtained by means of independent triplicate measurements. When appropiate, data were statistically evaluated by ANOVA test. The comparison of means was done by the least significat difference (LSD) at a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Proximate composition The chemical composition of PF is presented in table 1. The most outstanding features were the higher protein and crude fiber contents (410 and 160 g kg-1, respectively), in comparison with those from industrial wheat flour (100 and <5 g kg-1), and data on wheat flour reported by other authors (28, 29). The PF contained 115 g oil kg-1, and a relatively large amount (47 g kg-1) of ash. The oil component showed a desirable fatty acid (FA) composition (45.2 % oleic acid, 42.1 % linoleic acid, saturated FA < 13 %). The mineral composition revealed low sodium content (0.22 mg g-1 PF, DB) and high contents of both potassium and magnesium (6.81 and 2.59 mg g-1 PF, DB, respectively). Protein solubility and functional properties Protein solubility. pH dependent solubility profile of PF is presented in Fig. 1. The maximum protein precipitation was at pH 4 – 5; at these pH values about 94 % of the extracted protein was precipitated. This is consistent with earlier studies (25, 30, 31). Protein solubility increased at pH values below 4 and above 5, and the maximun solubility was reached at pH 8. Water holding capacity (WHC). The ability to absorb water is an essential functional property for foods and requires a good interaction protein-water. The flour obtainment proce- TABLE 1 Chemical composition of partially defatted peanut flour (PF) and breads made with 10 % peanut flour (PFB1), 20 % peanut flour (PFB2) and 100 % wheat flour (WB). Component PF PFB1 PFB2 WB Moisture 42.1 ± 2.0 270 ± 7.1a 280 ± 7.2a 285 ± 5.3a Proteins 410 ± 9.1 124 ± 4.5b 156 ± 5.2c 84 ± 2.1a Lipids 115 ± 4.3 14 ± 1.1a,b 16 ± 1.6b 10 ± 0.7a Ash 47 ± 1.6 24 ± 1.3a 25 ± 1.2a 21 ± 1.1a Crude fiber 160 ± 6.6 19 ± 0.8b 34 ± 1.6c 5 ± 0.05a Carbohydrate 225.9 ± 6.2 549 ± 14.8a,b 489 ± 16.8b 595 ± 9.9a Fatty acids Capric acid nd* tr** tr 2.3 ± 0.3 Lauric acid nd 0.6 ± 0.05a 0.5 ± 0.06a 3.4 ± 0.4b Myristic acid nd 1.6 ± 0.09a 1.7 ± 0.1a 6.7 ± 0.5b Palmitic acid 11.0 ± 0.2 20.4 ± 0.4a 20.9 ± 0.5a 27.6 ± 1.1b Palmitoleic acid nd 1.9 ± 0.1a 2.2 ± 0.2a 1.7 ± 0.1a Stearic acid 1.6 ± 0.1 12.9 ± 0.2a 12.4 ± 0.2a 14.8 ± 0.4b Oleic acid 45.2 ± 0.9 34.1 ± 0.7b 35.6 ± 0.8b 29.5 ± 1.3a Linoleic acid 42.1 ± 0.8 24.1 ± 0.5b 22.3 ± 0.4b 12.0 ± 0.5a Linolenic acid nd tr tr 1.9 ± 0.09 Arachidic acid nd 2.0 ± 0.1a 2.1 ± 0.09a tr Eicosenoic acid nd 2.3 ± 0.1a 2.0 ± 0.08a tr Behenic acid tr tr tr tr % US 87.3 ± 1.3 62.4 ± 1.1 62.1 ± 1.2 45.1 ± 0.9 PUFA/SFA 3.3 ± 0.3 0.6 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.1 0.25 ± 0.08 Minerals Sodium 0.22 ± 0.01 0.27 ± 0.02a 0.28 ± 0.02a 0.29 ± 0.01a Potassium 6.81 ± 0.09 5.66 ± 0.1b 5.99 ± 0.2b 4.22 ± 0.1a Magnesium 2.59 ± 0.06 1.95 ± 0.05a 2.07 ± 0.08a 1.83 ± 0.06a Calcium 0.51 ± 0.03 0.41 ± 0.04a 0.43±0.05a 0.43 ± 0.04a Iron 0.09 ± 0.01 0.05 ± 0.01a 0.06 ± 0.02a 0.04 ± 0.01a Coper 0.02 ± 0.007 0.009 ± 0.002a 0.01 ± 0.005a 0.005 ± 0.001a Zinc 0.04 ± 0.009 0.03 ± 0.01a 0.03 ± 0.009a 0.02 ± 0.01a *nd, not detected. **tr, trace<0.5 %. Proximate (g kg-1 dry matter), mineral (mg g-1 dry matter) and fatty acid (% of total fatty acids) compositions, unsaturated fatty acid percentage (% US), and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids ratio (PUFA/SFA) of peanut flour (PF), breads containing 10 and 20 % peanut flour (PFB1 and PFB2, respectively), and wheat breads (100 % wheat flour, WB). Mean values ± standard deviations (s(n-1)), n=3. Different superscript letters indicate significant differences (p £ 0.05) among PFB1, PFB2 and WB for each component evaluated.


Rev Nutr 43-4
To see the actual publication please follow the link above